Early Years Foundation Stage
The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) emphasises the right of every child and their family to be included and welcomed
in all settings and requires practitioners to promote positive attitudes to diversity and difference and to meet the individual needs
of all children whatever their background, needs or abilities.
The EYFS is divided into four themes and principles that underpin the focus of the framework. These four areas are:
1. A Unique Child - every child is a competent learner from birth, who can be resilient, capable, confident and
2. Positive Relationships - children learn to be strong and independent from a base of loving and secure
relationships with parents and/or a key person.
3. Enabling Environments - the environment plays a key role in supporting and extending children's
development and learning.
4. Learning and Development - children develop and learn in different ways and at different rates, and all
areas of learning and the framework caters for the care and education of all children.
The EYFS is made up of seven areas of learning and development and the combination of all these areas together promote
the vital experiences, skills, knowledge, confidence and self-esteem that help build a solid foundation for children to learn
and develop throughout life. The seven areas of learning and development are:
Personal, Social and Emotional Development
Involves helping children to develop a positive sense of themselves, and others; to form positive relationships and
develop respect for others; to develop social skills and learn how to manage their feelings; to understand appropriate
behaviour in groups; and to have confidence in their own abilities.
Involves providing opportunities for young children to be active and interactive; and to develop their co-ordination, control,
and movement. Children must also be hepled to understand the importance of physical activity, and to make healthy choices
in relation to food.
Communication and Language
Development involves giving children opportunities to experience a rich language environment; to develop thier confidence
and skills in expressing themselves; and to speak and listen in a range of situations.
Development involves encouraging children to link sounds and letters and to begin to read and write. Children must be
given access to a wide range of reading materials (books, poems, and other written materials) to ignite their interest.
Involves providing children with opportunities to develop and improve their skills in counting, understanding and using
numbers, calculating simple addition and subtraction problems; and to describe shapes, spaces, and measures.
Understanding the World
Involves guiding children to make sense of their physical world and thier community through opportunities to explore,
observe and find out about people, places, technology and the environment.
Expressive Arts and Design
Involves enabling children to explore and play with a wide range of media and materials, as well as providing
opportunities and encouragement for sharing their thoughts, ideas and feelings through a variety of activities in art,
music, movement, dance, role-play, and design and technology.